Choline is a quaternary saturated amine with the chemical formula
(CH3)3N+CH2CH2OHX−, where X− is a counterion such as chloride (see
choline chloride), hydroxide or tartrate. Choline chloride, in
mixture with urea is used as a solvent (DES) and the salicylate
salt is used topically for pain relief of aphthous ulcers.
Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological
purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell
membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis),
and as a major source for methyl groups via its metabolite,
trimethylglycine (betaine) that participates in the
S-adenosylmethionine synthesis pathways.
1、Contribute to treatment of Alzheimer's disease
2、Treatment of nervous system diseases such as Parkinson's disease
and tardive dyskinesia helpful
3、Control fat and cholesterol savings
4、Promote liver function, help the body eliminate toxins
5、Help send a signal to stimulate the nerve, prevent old age memory
Lack of long-term intake of dietary choline may include the main
findings of the liver, kidney, pancreas disease, memory disorders
and growth failure.
1、the liver changes: most of the animals, the lack of choline can
cause liver dysfunction, a large number of liver lipid (mainly
triglyceride) accumulation and eventually filled the entire liver
2、kidney changes: lack also harmful to the kidneys shrink
3、induced cancer: lack of choline caused by genetic damage caused
by carcinogenic process first, and then some can form tumor cell
survival and proliferation of variations.
4、Low-choline diet-related symptoms：infertility, growth
retardation, bone abnormalities, blood disorder and hypertension
were also reported.